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When the electric car feeds the energy needs of the house

This article obtained the first award in the framework of the Competition "Génération Energies" on the topic Energ' ETHIC, organized by Sia Conseil, the Expansion and RTE.

The Conference of Copenhagen of December 2009 was the occasion to remind that the environmental cost of the comfort and mobility level which we acquired is heavy. In the Union of the 27, the energy industry and transport are respectively responsible for 32% and 19.5% of the CO2 emissions of the zone. In order to reduce our contribution to the climate warming, it is essential to limit the share of hydrocarbons in our energetic mix by developing the electric vehicle and by benefitting constantly from the electric potential offered by the energy sources which don't emit CO2. There exists a clever system conceived to carry out these two objectives at the same time: the V2H or Vehicle-to-Home.

The V2H concept uses the battery of the electric car to modulate the electricity consumption of the house. Each vehicle, thanks to its battery, potentially constitutes a power storage unit which can be placed at the disposal according to the domestic needs. It enables to smooth the load curve of the network by connecting the battery to feed the house at the time of the consumption peaks, when the network resorts to the production via polluting hydrocarbons power stations and provides power with high carbon contents. In off peak period, the battery refills on the network with baseload power produced by power stations not emitting CO2. If the consumer benefits from an offer with peak and off peak tariffs, he will be able to strongly decrease its invoice of power. And if the implementation of a carbon tax on power is created, the potential savings will be higher.

"Vehicule to Home"concept

This system also constitutes a remarkable means of development of local renewable energies production capacities. More and more residentials produce their own power thanks to solar installations. Whole districts organize themselves to ensure their energy independence, let's quote the successful example of the Vauban district in Germany: residential zone able to ensure its own energy needs. In spite of the rise of initiatives aiming at promoting renewable energies, their intermittent character is a serious obstacle with their development. With the V2H, the totality of recoverable produced energy can be stored and placed at the disposal according to the needs. This system also enables to start the transition towards the power vehicle which is essential in order to reach the energy independence of the European Union: the road sector depends to 96% on oil products and the share of imported oil could reach 90% in 2020. The power vehicle requires a network of charging terminals distributed on all the territory.

The needed infrastructures are lacking. The installation of a V2H system offers to the residential a means of reloading his vehicle at home. The deployment potential at large scale of the V2H concept is immense. The communes can use the public transport network, when it is not in service, to supply the buildings or public lighting. Photovoltaic power stations can be installed in parkings, as the Dutch Neville Mars imagines, with the "solar forests" and reload the vehicles stationed the day. The quantity of energy to be recovered for later uses is considerable: a parking with 10.000m2 of photovoltaic power stations could generate between 800 and 1200 MWh per year according to the area, equal to the average annual needs for 213 to 320 electric vehicles.

V2H features will go increasing with the development of batteries. The capacity and the output of the lithium-ion batteries considerably increased and charging times clearly decreased. The manufacturers now propose power vehicles comparable with the thermal vehicles. The V2H offers to the EU a solution which would ensure the continued existence of the development mode which characterizes our modern society. Thanks to the funds exempted by the European Commission and the projects as the CONCERTO program which supports the local steps which exploit renewable energies and the sustainable home, the Union gave itself the means of successfully developing and diffusing this concept in all the area.

Marie Urban

Marie URBAN is student in Sciences PO Paris with a financial and strategy master. With an international profile, via its expatriation in Tanzania and by the Asia program of her school, her points of view about the energy evolutions are declined on the technical, economic and international plans. Her « Ecocampus » association intervenes in the awareness of universities about sustainable development. Marie URBAN already won an award at the first edition of the Generation Energies competition last year for her article about the future of energy storages.

Sources :
- Site de l'ADEME : www.ademe.fr
- Programme européen concerto de construction de quartiers :
- Site d'Eurostat : http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
- Site de l'Agence européenne pour l'environnement : http://www.eea.europa.eu/fr
- Site du ministère du développement durable :
- Site de Cnet news : Electric cars seen as killer app for smart grid June 20, 2009
- http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10269723-54.html
- Site de CSIRO : Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation: Plug-In Hybrid
Electric Vehicles http://www.csiro.au/files/files/ptec.pdf
- Plugging Into An Electric Vehicle Revolution ScienceDaily (Oct. 27, 2009)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091027101409.htm; Car Prototype Generates Electricity,
And Cash ScienceDaily (Dec. 9, 2007)
- Site de Toshiba: New battery offers unsurpassed recharge performance and high energy density 25/03/05
- Site de American Geological Institute The Race to Connect Cars, Communities and Renewables
- NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the US department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy : http://www.nrel.gov/¬vehiclesandfuels/¬hev/¬plugins.html

Génération Energies
Génération Énergies is the competition created by Sia Conseil, in partnership with RTE and the Expansion. The principle was for all the participants to write an article on the topic "Energ' ETHIC". For its 2nd edition, the competition for met a very sharp success, thus illustrating the importance for the students of the stakes connected to the future of the energy sector. In the presence of a prestigious jury, the 9 best articles shared a sum of 6400€ and are progressively published on the blogs of Sia Conseil and the Expansion.

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